Former Ambassadors

Research Unit

The Research Unit provides in this webpage information about the former American ambassadors to Spain.

James Costos
State of Residence: California
Non-career appointee
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Spain)
Appointed: August 19, 2013
Presentation of Credentials: September 24, 2013
Also accredited to Andorra; resident at Madrid.
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Andorra)
Appointed: August 19, 2013
Presentation of Credentials: April 4, 2014
Termination of Mission: Left post January 18th, 2017.

Alan D. Solomont 
State of Residence: Massachusetts
Non-career appointee
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (Spain)
Appointed: December 29, 2009
Presentation of Credentials: January 27, 2010
Termination of Mission: Left post June 28, 2013.
Note: Also accredited to Andorra; resident at Madrid.

Eduardo Aguirre
State of Residency: Texas
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 21, 2005
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 29, 2005
Termination of Mission: Jan 20, 2009
Note: Also accredited to Andorra; resident at Madrid.

George L. Argyros
State of Residency: California
Non-career officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Nov 21, 2001
Presentation of Credentials: Dec. 13, 2001
Termination of Mission: Left post, Nov. 21, 2004
Note: Also accredited to Andorra; resident at Madrid.

Edward L. Romero
State of Residency: New Mexico
Non-career officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 2, 1998
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 30, 1998
Termination of Mission: Left post, May , 2001

Richard N. Gardner
State of Residency: New York
Non-career officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 16, 1993
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1993
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 12, 1997

Richard Goodwin Capen, Jr.
State of Residency: Florida
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 15, 1992
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 8, 1992
Termination of Mission: Left post, Feb 17, 1993

Joseph Zappala
State of Residency: Florida
No-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Oct 10, 1989
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 16, 1989
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jun 4, 1992

Reginald Bartholomew
State of Residency: Virginia
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Aug 18, 1986
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 17, 1986
Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 12, 1989

Thomas Ostrom Enders
State of Residency: Connecticut
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Aug 5, 1983
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 15, 1983
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 6, 1986

Terence A. Todman
State of Residency: Virgin Islands
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 25, 1978
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 20, 1978
Termination of Mission: Left post, Aug 8, 1983

Wells Stabler
State of Residency: District of Columbia
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 20, 1975
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 13, 1975
Termination of Mission: Left post, May 4, 1978

Peter M. Flanigan
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Note: Not commissioned; nomination of Sep 17, 1974 was not acted upon by the Senate

Horacio Rivero
State of Residency: California
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 11, 1972
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 11, 1972
Termination of Mission: Left post, Nov 26, 1974

Robert C. Hill
State of Residency: New Hampshire
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 1, 1969
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 12, 1969
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jan 12, 1972

Robert F. Wagner
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 24, 1968
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 4, 1968
Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 7, 1969

Frank E. McKinney
State of Residency: Indiana
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 11, 1968
Note: Took oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.

Angier Biddle Duke
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 11, 1965
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 1, 1965
Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 30, 1968

Robert F. Woodward
State of Residency: Minnesota
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 7, 1962
Presentation of Credentials: May 10, 1962
Termination of Mission: Left post, Feb 1, 1965

Ellis O. Briggs
State of Residency: Maine
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Note: Not commissioned; nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.

Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 29, 1961
Presentation of Credentials: May 25, 1961
Termination of Mission: Left Spain, Oct 12, 1961

John Lodge
State of Residency: Connecticut
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jan 22, 1955
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 24, 1955
Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 13, 1961

James Clement Dunn
State of Residency: New York
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 27, 1953
Presentation of Credentials: Apr 9, 1953
Termination of Mission: Left post, Feb 9, 1955

Lincoln MacVeagh
State of Residency: Connecticut
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 21, 1952
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 27, 1952
Termination of Mission: Left post, Mar 4, 1953

Stanton Griffis
State of Residency: Connecticut
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 1, 1951
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 1, 1951
Termination of Mission: Relinquished charge, Jan 28, 1952

Note: During 1945-1951 the following officers served as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim: Philip W. Bonsal (Mar 1946-Jun 1947) and Paul T. Culbertson (Jun 1947-Dec 1950)

Norman Armour
State of Residency: New Jersey
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Dec 15, 1944
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 24, 1945
Termination of Mission: Left post, Dec 1, 1945

Carlton J. H. Hayes
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 2, 1942
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 9, 1942
Termination of Mission: Left Spain, Jan 18, 1945

Alexander W. Weddell
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 3, 1939
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 15, 1939
Termination of Mission: Left post, Feb 7, 1942

Claude G. Bowers
State of Residency: New York
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 6, 1933
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 1, 1933
Termination of Mission: Had final interview, Feb 2, 1939
Note: Bowers was resident during the last part of his Ambassadorship at St. Jean de Luz in France; he left that post, Jun 14, 1939, his appointment having terminated May 14, 1939. The Embassy had meanwhile been re-established in Spain on Apr 13, 1939, when H. Freeman Matthews had been received at Burgos as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim

Irwin B. Laughlin
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Foreign Service officer
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Oct 16, 1929
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 24, 1929
Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 12, 1933

Ogden H. Hammond
State of Residency: New Jersey
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Dec 21, 1925
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 26, 1926
Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 13, 1929

Alexander P. Moore
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 3, 1923
Presentation of Credentials: May 16, 1923
Termination of Mission: Left post, Dec 20, 1925

Cyrus E. Woods
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 24, 1921
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 14, 1921
Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 18, 1923

Joseph E. Willard
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 10, 1913
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 31, 1913
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 7, 1921

Joseph E. Willard
State of Residency: Virginia
Non-career appointee
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jul 28, 1913
Note: Took oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment

Henry Clay Ide
State of Residency: Vermont
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 1, 1909
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 9, 1909
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 8, 1913

William Miller Collier
State of Residency: New York
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 8, 1905
Presentation of Credentials: May 15, 1905
Termination of Mission: Superseded, Jun 9, 1909

Arthur S. Hardy
State of Residency: New Hampshire
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 26, 1902
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 2, 1903
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 1, 1905
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 8, 1902

Bellamy Storer
State of Residency: Ohio
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 12, 1899
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 16, 1899
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 10, 1902
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 14, 1899

Stewart L. Woodford
State of Residency: New York
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 19, 1897
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 13, 1897
Termination of Mission: Spain severed diplomatic relations with the U.S., Apr 21, 1898
Note: Woodford left post, Apr 21, 1898. The United States declared war on Spain as of that date by Act of Congress approved Apr 25, 1898

Hannis Taylor
State of Residency: Alabama
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 8, 1893
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 1, 1893
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 13, 1897

A. Loudon Snowden
State of Residency: Pennsylvania
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jul 22, 1892
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 6, 1892
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jun 3, 1893

E. Burd Grubb
State of Residency: New Jersey
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 27, 1890
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 23, 1890
Termination of Mission: Left post, May 26, 1892

Thomas W. Palmer
State of Residency: Michigan
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 12, 1889
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 17, 1889
Termination of Mission: Left post, Apr 19, 1890

Perry Belmont
State of Residency: New York
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Nov 17, 1888
Presentation of Credentials: Feb 13, 1889
Termination of Mission: Left post, May 1, 1889
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Dec 13, 1888

Jabez L.M. Curry
State of Residency: Virginia
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Oct 7, 1885
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 22, 1885
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 5, 1888
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 13, 1886

John W. Foster
State of Residency: Indiana
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 27, 1883
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 16, 1883
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Aug 28, 1885

Hannibal Hamlin
State of Residency: Maine
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 30, 1881
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 20, 1881
Termination of Mission: Left post, Oct 17, 1882
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Oct 13, 1881

Lucius Fairchild
State of Residency: Wisconsin
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jan 26, 1880
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 31, 1880
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 20, 1881

James Russell Lowell
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 11, 1877
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 18, 1877
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Mar 2, 1880
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Oct 30, 1877

Caleb Cushing
State of Residency: Virginia
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jan 6, 1874
Presentation of Credentials: May 30, 1874
Termination of Mission: Presented new credentials on Mar 10, 1875, after restoration of monarchy; left post, Apr 9, 1877

Daniel E. Sickles
State of Residency: New York
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 15, 1869
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 29, 1869
Termination of Mission: Presented new credentials on Feb 2, 1871, after change of government; transmitted recall by note Jan 31, 1874
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Mar 16, 1870

Henry S. Sandford
State of Residency: Connecticut
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Note: Not commissioned; nomination tabled by the Senate

William S. Rosecrans
State of Residency: Ohio
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Note: Not commissioned; nomination tabled by the Senate

John P. Hale
State of Residency: New Hampshire
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 10, 1865
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 30, 1865
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jul 29, 1869

Gustavus Koerner
State of Residency: Illinois
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 14, 1862
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 4, 1862
Termination of Mission: Left post, Jul 20, 1864

Carl Schurz
State of Residency: Wisconsin
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 28, 1861
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 13, 1861
Termination of Mission: Left post, Dec 18, 1861

Cassius M. Clay
State of Residency: Kentucky
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 14, 1861
Note: Declined appointment

William Preston
State of Residency: Kentucky
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Dec 15, 1858
Presentation of Credentials: Mar 12, 1859
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, May 24, 1861

Augus C. Dodge
State of Residency: Iowa
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 9, 1855
Presentation of Credentials: Jun 17, 1855
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Mar 12, 1859

John C. Breckinridge
State of Residency: Kentucky
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jan 16, 1855
Note: Declined appointment

Pierre Soule
State of Residency:
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 7, 1853
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 24, 1853
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Feb 1, 1855

Daniel M. Barringer
State of Residency: North Carolina
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 18, 1849
Presentation of Credentials: Oct 24, 1849
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 4, 1853
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Sep 28, 1850

Romulus M. Saunders
State of Residency: North Carolina
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 25, 1846
Presentation of Credentials: Jul 31, 1846
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 24, 1849

Washington Irving
State of Residency: New York
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 10, 1842
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 1, 1842
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jul 29, 1846

Aaron Vail
State of Residency:
Title: Chargé d’Affaires
Appointment: May 20, 1840
Presentation of Credentials: Nov 5, 1840
Termination of Mission: Superseded, Aug 1, 1842

John H. Eaton
State of Residency: Florida
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 16, 1836
Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]
Termination of Mission: Left post, May 1, 1840
Note: No report has been found of presentation of credentials, which probably took place about Feb 1, 1837

William T. Barry
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Apr 10, 1853
Note: Took oath of office, but died en route to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate

Cornelius P. Van Ness
State of Residency: Vermont
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 1, 1829
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 9, 1829
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Dec 21, 1836
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 10, 1830

Alexander Hill Everett
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Title: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Mar 9, 1825
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 4, 1825
Termination of Mission: Left post, Aug 1, 1829

Hugh Nelson
State of Residency: Virginia
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jan 15, 1823
Presentation of Credentials: Dec 4, 1823
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Jul 10, 1825

John Forsyth
State of Residency: Georgia
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Feb 16, 1819
Presentation of Credentials: May 18, 1819
Termination of Mission: Had farewell audience, Mar 2, 1823

George W. Erving
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Aug 10, 1814
Presentation of Credentials: Aug 24, 1816
Termination of Mission: Left post, May 15, 1819
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate. Nomination confirmed by the Senate, Oct 3, 1814; commission following confirmation not of record

James Bowdoin
State of Residency: Massachusetts
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Nov 22, 1804
Note: Did not proceed to post

Note: George W. Erving served as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, Oct 1805-Feb 1810

Charles Pinckney
State of Residency: South Carolina
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Jun 6, 1801
Presentation of Credentials: Jan-Mar. 1802
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Oct 25, 1804
Note: Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 26, 1802.

David Humphreys
State of Residency: Connecticut
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: May 20, 1796
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 10, 1797
Termination of Mission: Probably presented recall soon after Dec 28,1801

William Short
State of Residency: Virginia
Title: Minister Resident
Appointment: May 28, 1794
Presentation of Credentials: Sep 7, 1794
Termination of Mission: Left post, Nov 1, 1795

William Carmichael
State of Residency: Maryland
Title: Chargé d’Affaires
Appointment: Apr 20, 1790
Presentation of Credentials: [see note below]
Termination of Mission: Presented recall, Sep 5, 1794
Note: No report has been found concerning Carmichael’s presentation of credentials as Chargé d’Affaires en titre; he was received as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, Feb 20, 1873

John Jay
State of Residency: New York
Title: Minister Plenipotentiary
Appointment: Sep 29, 1779
Note: Proceeded to post, but was not formally received at court; left post about May 20, 1782